အေသာကရဲ႕ အကၡရာမ်ား-၂၂

– ေဒ၀ါနံ ပိေယ ပိယဒသိ လာဇ ေဟ၀ံ အဟာ။ ကယာနံ ေမ၀ ေဒခတိ။ ဣယံ ေမ
– ကယာေန ကေဋ တိ။ ေနာ မိန ပါပံ ေဒခတိ။ ဣယံ ေမ ပါေပ ကေဋ တိ ဣယံ အာသိနေ၀
– နာမာ တိ။ ဒုပဋိေ၀ေခ စု ေခါ ဧသာ။ ေဟ၀ံ စု ေခါ ဧသ ေဒခိေယ။ ဣမာနိ
– အာသိန၀ဂါမီနိ နာမ အထာ စံဍိေယ နိဌဴလိေယ ေကာေဓာ မာေန ဣသ်ာ
– ကာလေနန ၀ ဟကံ မာ ပလိဘသယိသံ။ ဧသ ဗာဎ ေဒခေယ။ ဣယံ ေမ
– ဟိဒတိကာေယ ဣယံမန ေမ ပါလတိကာေယ။


မင္းတကာတို႔ ခ်စ္ၾကည္ ေလးစားအပ္၍ ပိယဒႆီဟု ၀ွ႔ဲခ်ီ ခပ္ႏွိပ္ အ႐ွင္မဟာကႆပ မေထရ္ျမတ္၏႔ ဗ်ာဒိတ္ေတာ္ကို ခံယူ-ရ႐ွိေသာ အေသာကမင္းၾတားျမတ္ႀကီး ဤသို႔ မိန္႔ျပန္ထားေလၿပီ၊ ပုဂၢိဳလ္တစံုတဦးသည္ ငါကား ေကာင္းမႈကို ျပဳအပ္ၿပီဟု ေကာင္းမႈကိုသာ–အေကာင္းကိုသာ ႐ႈျမင္တတ္၏၊ မေကာင္းမႈကိုမူ ငါကား မေကာင္းမႈကို ျပဳအပ္ၿပီဟု မ႐ႈျမင္တတ္ေလ၊ (စင္စစ္ကား) ဤမေကာင္းမႈကိုလည္း (မေကာင္းက်ိဳး ခံစားရမည့္) အမႈသစ္ မည္၏–ဟုကား ႐ႈျမင္ဆင္ျခင္ရန္ ခဲးယဥ္းလွ၏၊ မည္သို႔ ျဖစ္ေစကာ စင္စစ္ကား ဤမေကာင္းမႈတို႔မွာ (မေကာင္းက်ိဳး ရ႐ွိမည့္) အမႈသစ္တို႔သာ ျဖစ္ကုန္၏ ဟု ႐ႈျမင္ဆင္ျခင္သင့္ေလသည္၊ ထိုသို႔ မ႐ႈျမင္ မဆင္ျခင္ပဲးသာ သူတပါး အေပၚ၌ ကိုယ္အားျဖင့္ ၾကမ္းထန္းျခင္း ႏႈတ္အားျဖင့္ ၾကမ္းထန္းျခင္း, အမ်က္ ေဒါသ ေခ်ာင္းေခ်ာင္းထျခင္း, တက္ႂကြား ျမင့္ေမာက္ စိတ္ဓာတ္ ေရာက္ျခင္း, ျငဴစူ ေစာင္းေျမာင္းျခင္းတို႔ျဖင့္ ေကာင္းမႈ-ကုသိုလ္၌ အကုသို္လ္ ဒုစ႐ိုက္ဖ်င္းကို မဖ်န္းပက္ မေလွ်ာ က်ကုန္မိေစလေႆး၊ ဤဆိုခဲ့သည့္ ေကာင္းမႈ-မေကာင္းမႈ ၂မ်ိဳးကို တိုးဆင့္ ဖြံ႕ကား၍ ႐ႈျမင္ရာ၏၊ (အသို႔ ႐ႈျမင္မည္နည္း)? ဤေကာင္းမႈ-မေကာင္းမႈကား ဤပစၥကၡ၌၎, တမလြန္၌၎, ခံစားရ႐ွိမည့္ အေၾကာင္းတရားမ်ား ျဖစ္၏ဟု ႐ႈျမင္ရာ၏၊ ဤသို႔ အေသာကမင္းတရား မိန္႔ျပန္ထား႐ွိေတာ္မူၿပီ။[1]

…..

နတ္တို႔ခ်စ္ျမတ္ႏိုးေသာ ပိယဒသီ မင္းႀကီးသည္ ဤသို႔ မိန္႔ေတာ္မူ၏။ ဤမည္ေသာ ေကာင္းမႈကို ငါျပဳခဲ့ေလၿပီဟု မိမိ၏ ေကာင္းမႈကို သာလွ်င္ (လူတို႔) ျမင္တတ္၏။ ဤမည္ေသာ မေကာင္းမႈကို ငါျပဳမိ၏။ ဤသည္ကား ငါ၏ အျပစ္ပါတကားဟု မိမိ၏ မေကာင္းမႈကို လူတို႔ မျမင္တတ္။ ဤသို႔ ဆင္ျခင္႐ႈျမင္ရန္ကား ခဲယဥ္းလွေပ၏တကား။ ဤသည္တို႔သည္ကား အျပစ္သို႔ သက္ေရာက္ေစေသာ တရားတို႔ေပတည္း။ ရက္စက္ျခင္း၊ ၾကမ္းၾကဳတ္ျခင္း၊ အမ်က္ထြက္ျခင္း၊ ေထာင္လႊားျခင္း၊ မနာလိုျခင္း။  ဤအေၾကာင္းတို႔ျဖင့္ ငါသည္ ခ်ဳတ္ခ်ယ္ေျပာဆိုျခင္းကို မျပဳလတံ။ ဤသည္ကား ငါ၏ မ်က္ေမွာက္ေလာကအဖို႔၊ ဤသည္ကား ငါ၏ တမႏြန္ေလာကအဖို႔၊ ဤသို႔ ေကာင္းစြာ ႐ႈဆင္ျခင္ရာ၏။[2]

…..

‘Thus spake king Devanampiya Piyadasi:—’ Whatever appeared to me to be virtuous and  good, that is so held to be good and virtuous by me, and not the less if it have evil tendency, is it accounted for evil by me or is it named among the asinave (the nine offences?). Eyes are given (to man) to distinguish between the two qualities (between right and wrong): according to the capacity of the eyes so may they behold.

‘The following are accounted among the nine minor transgressions:— mischief, hard-heartedness, anger, pride, envy. These evil deeds of nine kinds shall on no account be mentioned. They should be regarded as opposite (or prohibited). Let this (ordinance) be impressed on my heart, let it be cherished with all my soul.’ ”[3]

…..

Thus saith His Sacred and Gracious Majesty the King: ‘A man sees only his good deed and says, “This good deed has been done by me.” In no wise does he see his ill deed (or “sin”) and say,” This ill deed have I done, this act called impiety.”

Difficult, however, is self-examination of this kind. Nevertheless, a man should see to this that brutality, cruelty, anger, pride, jealousy, are the things leading to impiety, [and should say], “By reason of these may I not fall.”

This is chiefly to be seen to “The one course avails me for the present world, the other course avails me also for the world to come”.[4]

……

Thus saith His Sacred and Gracious Majesty the King: one sees only his good deed, thinking, “this good deed has been done by me.” But he sees in no wise his sin, thinking, “This sin has been committed by me, or this indulgence of passions, as it is called.” Difficult, indeed, it is to see it fully. But it has to be seen thus: “These are called the incentives to indulgence, namely, ferocity, cruelty, anger, arrogance, jealousy; and by these reasons let me not ruin (myself).” The following ought to be specially regarded: “this is for me for this world, that other for me for the next.”[5]

…..

Thus speaks the Beloved of the Gods, the king Piyadassi: One only notices one’s good deeds, thinking, ‘I have done good’, but on the other hand one does not notice one’s wicked deeds, thinking, ‘I have done evil’, or ‘this is indeed a sin’. Now, to be aware of this is something really difficult. But nevertheless one should notice this and think, ‘Cruelty, harshness, anger, pride, and envy, these are indeed productive of sin.’ Let them not be the cause of my fall. And this one should especially notice, thinking, “this is important to my happiness in this world; that, on the other hand, for the next.’ [6]

…..

Thus saith king Priyadarsi, the Beloved of the gods: one counts his good deeds only (thinking), “this good deed has been done by me.” No one counts his sinful act (thinking), “this sinful act has been committed by me or this is called a sin.” It is really difficult to scrutinize. However, this indeed, ought to be conceived thus: “these (evils) lead to transgression, namely, violence, cruelty, anger, arrogance and envy, and for that reason, I should not cause my decline”. This must really be conceived (thus)—“this (self-scrutiny) is for my (happiness) in this world and also to some extent in the next. [7]


[1] အ႐ွင္အာဒိစၥ၀ံသ, အေသာကမင္းတရားႀကီး၏့ ေက်ာက္စာေတာ္၊

[2] ဦးဖုိးလတ္, အေသာကေက်ာက္စာမ်ား၊

[3] Tr. Prinsep, Alexander Cunningham, Inscriptions of Asoka.

[4] V. A. Smith, Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India.

[5] R.K. Mookerji, Asoka.

[6] Romila Thapar, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas.

[7] Naresh Prasad Rastogi, Inscriptions of Asoka.

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